Former Police Commissioner in New York, Sheffield Hallam University, United States
This will be a presentation of real crime scenes and the management of efforts bringing together the forensic experts and the investigative personal to solve real cases. Having lead the Homicide Department department unlike CSI and other programs, police fail to collect and properly analysis a crime scene which I will demonstrate. We need to interpret crime scenes. Sloppy police investigations, lazy forensic personnel team up to reduce the ability to solve cases with solid evidence.
Anthony Schembri is a respected law enforcement and academic professional with over four decades’ experience in the field. Over the years, he has drawn praise from such varied sources as New York City Mayor, President Jimmy Carter, Florida Governor Jeb Bush, and New York Governor Mario Cuomo. First appointed to the Brooklyn District Attorneys Office he advanced to Deputy Chief of the Narcotics Bureau, then to Director of Training at the District Attorneys Police Academy. Anthony Schembri has served as the city’s Deputy Inspector General, investigating cases of major crime and corruption. He was appointed by the Mayor of New York as Corrections Commissioner, a position putting him in charge of 12,000 uniformed officers and 20,000 inmates at 19 separate jail facilities. Today, the Citrus County, Florida, resident serves as a Visiting Professor at Oxford and Sheffield Hallam University and named Outstanding Professor of the Year at the University of Florida.
Association of Women Forensic Experts, Italy
During years all around the world have been developed DNA databases in which genetic profiles of certain people are recorded as well as the ones of traces found at the scene of a crime. This allows routine comparisons between a large number of DNA profiles at national and international levels. The main purpose of a DNA database is to allow criminal investigators to search for matches between convicted persons and evidence from unsolved cases and to link different crime scenes. In this presentation there will be discussed the advantages and limitations of DNA databases with an overview to different databases available worldwide and to their effectiveness in solving crimes, especially cold cases.
Anna Barbaro has completed her European PhD in Forensic Genetics (PhD) at University of Santiago de Compostela (Spain). She got a Diploma at the School of Specialization in Applied Genetics and a Master Diploma in Psychological and Behavioral Techniques of the Criminal Investigation at the University of Rome La Sapienza (Italy). She has published more than 150 papers, including conference presentation, she is Author of 3 technical Manuals and of some chapters in other books. She serves as President of the Worldwide Association of Women Forensic Experts, she is honor member of some scientific associations, she serves as reviewer for several international scientific journals and she is Member of the Editorial Committee of some international scientific journals. Invited speaker at various national and international conferences, organizer of courses and conferences about Forensic Sciences, member of the Scientific Committee of several courses and conferences. She is currently researcher at the University of Alcalà (Spain)
Forensic Criminologist / Private Death Investigator, United Kingdom
Pettler’s Staging Taxonomy and The Murder Room, both invented by forensic criminologist Dr. Laura Pettler are chaging the perception of staging and preferred methodology in death investigation today. Pettler’s Staging Taxonomy is the first of its kind to classify staging behaviors into one of three clusters to be used in part with The Murder Room death investigation method. The Murder Room is a systematic, multidisciplinary, empirical victim-centered death investigation methodology that not only helps investigators arrive at the correct suspect, but also with the correct manner of death. With an 98% solvability rate, The Murder Room method is surprisingly easy to learn, easy to build, and easy to use. Worldwide, The Murder Room method has been adopted by investigators with resounding success.
Laura Pettler completed her PhD from the Department of Public Safety, Capella University, Minnesota, USA. She is CEO of LPA and author of the first book on staged murder cases in the world. Dr. Pettler has published numerous articles on death investigation, cold case homicide investigation, crime scene reconstruction, intimate partner homicide, and death scene staging. She was the forensic criminologist for The Dr. Oz Show and appears on numerous television shows with her area of expertise. She has built, taught, and made hundreds of presentations on related topics and has worked death cases in the field since 2003
Forum Lex Association, Italy
Algorithms and A.I. may have the power to influence, gender stereotypes and consequently violence against women.
An orientation to gender equality is increasingly necessary, in order to integrate it into the principles of A.I., with an approach based on rights and intervening on the “system”.
Experts have shown that, with respect to the spread of gender stereotypes, which can contribute to fueling the phenomenon of violence against women, computer vision algorithms could automatically learn social bias similar to those of human beings, if pre-trained with a large set of images online, without prior provision of categorized images.
This type of pre-trained unsupervised algorithms could therefore, learning social bias, similar to those of human beings, make decisions based on prejudices or stereotypes.
The same A.I. can come to our rescue anyway, allowing us to become aware of the existing biases with respect to a data set and to be able to deal with it.
It is important to emphasize that it is not the algorithm that is discriminating, but the data from which it draws information or from the political logic of the person who designs it.
In order to help stem the phenomenon of violence against women, there are many issues that come into play: tools for neutralizing algorithmic biases (ethical guidelines, also algorithms can remove the spread of sexist languages), together with policy makers and beyond, because it is the data that must be able to be changed and this can only happen if people's behavior is changed
Dr. Giuseppina Seppini, MSN, RN, Criminologist, Forensic Analyst, Facial Expression Analyst , Director of Piemonte Regional Office of Forum Lex Association. Adjunct professor of Nursing Research, Master of Science in Nursing, Faculty of Medicine and Surgery, Catholic University, Cottolengo Hospital, Turin Italy; Adjunct professor of Theory and Methods of professional Management, and applications in Nursing, Master of Science in Nursing, School of Medicine of the University of Turin; Vice-President, Scientific Manager National Association of Neurscience Nurses; Member Italian Academy of Forensic Science (Forensic and legal Nursing); Member of International Association of Forensic Nurses; Member of WAWFE, Worldwide Association of Women Forensic Experts.
Dr. Iolanda Ippolito, Criminologist - Police Officer Present President Association "Forum Lex – ", (Italy) ▪ Headmaster and professor in Investigative Criminology for the Workshop in Juvenile Criminology ▪ headmaster and professor in Course of specialisation "Expertise in Investigative Techniques and Intervention Procedures in cases of Domestic Violence, Stalking, Feminicide, Bullying and Baby Gang. Present Judicial Police Unit for Gender and Juvenile Violence Municipal Police Department in Naples, Responsible person of the Unit for activities of prevention, control and contrast and assistance to women exposed to the risk of violence, stalking and violence against children. Referent of the Ministry of Infrastructure and Transport in the project “VI International Festival of Road Safety and Legality Arts" as expertise in the topics of Gender violence,bullying, cyberbullying and web dangers. University teaching professional Università Suor Orsola Benincasa, Naples (Italy) Second level Master in Family Law about "Investigative Criminology in relation to Gender Violence and Domestic Crimes".
Associate Professor at Dubai Police HQ
United Arab Emirates
Sexual exploitation of children on the Internet is an international problem that has emerged with the proliferation of the use of the Internet and the use of crimes by some, perhaps the most serious, is the use of it in sexual exploitation. It has become difficult to track the perpetrators of this crime in all its forms, which has made it easier for perpetrators to discover their crimes and to escape legal and security prosecution because of the ability of the network to conceal and overcome geographical borders and the means through which crime can be committed This has led to measures to combat these crimes against many of the obstacles and the most important of which are those that face international cooperation in fighting, which has often led the security and judicial agencies to pursue the perpetrators and to control the evidence of their crimes at the international level. Thus, the urgent need for effective international cooperation in all control axes, namely, the legal and security axis, and both complement each other, where the legal axis is is the protectionism and legitimacy The role of security in order to legitimize security procedures taking place within the framework and the problem erupts here when the legal systems differ, in light of the multiple countries where the elements of crime are found and whose pillars achieved. This requires to find means of international cooperation in this regard, which can overcome obstacles, pursue and control the perpetrators, especially in light of the major technological development that has emerged with the emergence of highly complex and hidden criminal methods and that are capable of discovering the identity of the perpetrators, and thus limiting the ability of the ability of the ability of even in the existence of the ability of the existence of the existence of the ability of the existence of the ability of the existence of the existence of the existence of the ability of the existence of the existence of the existence of the existence of the existence of the existence of the existence of the existence of mechanisms Effective international cooperation ‐ which requires the modernization and development of those mechanisms in a coherent and expeditious manner to keep pace with those developments. International cooperation in combating the crimes of sexual exploitation of children via the Internet is the most important aspect of combating the international character of crime. Perpetrators of sexual exploitation crimes target children for material gain. This done through several forms of crime, including the extraction of a child to produce harmful pornography or forced to prostitution with adults who seek sex with children. Through security control operations, it is shown that effective international cooperation among the various security agencies for the success of control efforts The United Nations Organization, several other regional organizations, coordinated by the International Criminal Police Organization (Interpol) and several regional police organizations working in the fight against crime, especially those with transboundary character, as well as civil society organizations supported by the government or those distinguished by an organized international character. The cause of the seriousness of the crime is due to the victim because it is a vulnerable and initial protection group. Children are the pillar of the future, which requires the international community's solidarity to protect them from violations that lead to the destruction of their will and their physical and psychological ills that threaten the future of humanity. In light of the insufficient international cooperation, the need for developing such cooperation mechanisms shows, especially given the growing technological capabilities of the perpetrators that enable them to hide their identities through the internet, such as the deep networks and the internet The security services cannot identify and arrest the perpetrators or their locations, allow them to escape their crimes and encourage others to do the same. Interpol, in conjunction with several civil organizations working in the field of combating sexual exploitation of children online, conducted an important study on the status of a descriptive profile for children in the International Photo Database for Children, whose pictures appear on different occasions and fed by law enforcement personnel in all countries of the world. Whereas Interpol, in its efforts to prevent sexual exploitation of children, has worked to study a descriptive file for anonymous children and placed with sexual content that includes
DR. Hossam Elshenraki Experienced Investigator with a demonstrated history of working in law enforcement specially in criminal investigation and cyber crimes investigation Skilled in Teaching & Training in fields of Cyber crimes investigation, Law Enforcement Criminal investigation. cyber crime scene management Working now as academic professor in Dubai police academy as associate professor in criminal investigation and cyber crimes investigation, Have experiences in teaching methods professional and academic matters.
Geographic Profiling Analyst, Italy
This presentation introduce how it is possible contrast a serial offender using a specific method called Geographic Profiling. This method uses the geographic evidences of crimes to identify the most likely area of offender’s residence or his/her anchor points.
It is fundamental stress that Geographic Profiling cannot be just running a geographic profiling software or entering crime data inside a spatial analysis tool.
This innovative investigative technique requires the knowledge of theoretical principles, experience in criminal investigation, the examination of all informations about crimes, the choice of locations to include in geographic analysis and the interpretation of geoprofile’s results.
Dr. Domingo Magliocca is a Certified Geographic Profiling Analyst serving in Italy as a police officer assigned at Judicial Police Section of local Public Prosecutor's Office for criminal investigation activities. He has a Bachelor of Arts Degree in Security and Social Control Operator, a Master’s Degree in Applied Criminology for Investigation and Security from University of Bologna, and a Master’s Degree in Law from the University Telematica Pegaso. Domingo is author of books “Tracce geografiche criminali. Teoria e tecnica del Profilo Geografico” (Primiceri Edition, 2020) about geographic profiling technique, “Introduzione al crimine violento. Criminal profiling e classificazioni pratiche (Primiceri Edition, 2020), “Profilo Criminale. Analisi integrata del luogo del delitto” (Primiceri Edition, 2019) about criminal profiling, and “Il delitto di atti persecutori - stalking” (Primiceri Edition, 2017) about phenomena of stalking. He is author of specialistic articles about stalking, crime scene, law, geographical offender profiling as “Geographic Profiling Report. The homicide of Cattolica and of others women: hypothesis of serial killer in Milan”. He was a board member of journal "Intelligence & Storia Top Secret", Peer Reviewer of international scientific journal “Universal Journal of Psychology”. Domingo is a collaborator of technical-juridical journal "Sicurezza e Giustizia", as well as speaker in international forensic science conferences. He is a honorary member of Bolivian Forensic Sciences Society.
Laboratory specialist, Saudi Arabia
Palynology, which is the study of pollen and spores in an archaeological or geological context, has become a well-established research tool leading to many significant scientific developments. The term paly- nomorph includes pollen of spermatophytes, spores of fungi, ferns, and bryophytes, as well as other organic-walled microfossils, such as dinoflagellates and acritarches. Advances in plant genomics have had a high impact on the field of forensic botany. Forensic palynology has also been used and applied more recently to criminal investigation in a meaningful way. However, the use of pollen DNA profiling in forensic investigations has yet to be applied. There were earlier uses of dust traces in some forensic analyses that considered pollen as a type of botanical dust debris. Pollen grains can be studied for com- parative morphological data, clues to unexpected aspects relating to breeding systems, pollination biol- ogy and hybridization. This can provide a better understanding of the entire biology of the group under investigation. Forensic palynology refers to the use of pollen and other spores when it is used as evidence in legal cases to resolve criminal issues by proving or disproving relationships between people and crime scenes. This overview describes the various contributions and the significance of palynology, its applica- tions, different recent approaches and how it could be further employed in solving criminal investigations.
Master of Forensic Evidence and Laboratory Specialist, Member in the Arab Society of Forensic Sciences, Certified Trainer, First Aid provider, The public relations leader of the (LabTest) volunteer Team
1 Associate Professor, Department of Criminal Investigation, Central Police University, Taiwan
2Detective, Criminal Investigation Division, Kaohsiung City Police Department, Taiwan
Although street group fighting is only a violent incident, it has a significant impact on citizens' perceptions of social safety and Police efficiency. In Taiwan, the amendment to the Criminal Law, passed on January 15, 2020, aggravate punishment of "Offenses of Interference with Public Order," in which participants of a group of three or more people, gathering at a public place or place where the public may enter and exit and employing violence or threats, to response the problem.
This study focuses on using social network analysis to profile 10 group fighting cases in 2019 in one municipality of Taiwan from several official databases, to investigate network denseness (degree of cohesion among members) and nodes who ganged up the participants in each case.
The results show that the social network pattern of street group fighting could classify into two kinds of types: traditional hierarchical-gang-organization-type and loosed aggregation types. Finally, we propose investigating strategies for law enforcement agencies to formulate measures for the group fighting prevention and investigation.
Keywords: Social Network Analysis, street group fighting, Proactive Investigations
Shih, Chih-Hung working as Associate Professor, Department of Criminal Investigation, Central Police University, Taiwan & Chen, Tzu-Chia working as Detective, Criminal Investigation Division, Kaohsiung City Police Department, Taiwan.
Grigore T. Popa University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Iasi, Romania
In 1984, the British geneticist Alec Jeffreys discovered genetic fingerprinting technology. This discovery marked the beginning of a new era in human identification and filiation research but also brought new challenges in forensic and judicial practice. In this paper, the authors analyze the advantages of using DNA fingerprinting in forensic identification such as: the presence of DNA in almost all cells of the body, its resistance to putrefaction, ease of storage of samples for long periods, low quantity of biological sample required, the favorable cost-effectiveness and the unprecedented accuracy of the method. On the other hand, the authors discuss the problematic issues associated to the DNA fingerprinting generated by its potential impact on the presumption of innocence or the right of the accused to a fair trial. The authors also discuss the issues generated by the creation of the DNA databases, such as the impact on confidentiality and privacy or the impact on the presumption of innocence. The authors conclude by emphasizing the responsibility of forensic experts in the prudent use and recognition of the limits of genetic fingerprinting, for the correct resolution of cases and the avoidance of injustice.
Key words: DNA, fingerprinting, forensic medicine, justice, ethics, challenges
Beatrice Gabriela Ioan is Professor of Legal Medicine and Bioethics at “Grigore T. Popa” University of Medicine and Pharmacy of Iasi, Romania, She also serves as forensic pathologist at the Institute of Legal Medicine of Iași. She graduated from the Faculty of Medicine in 1993, the Faculty of Psychology in 2002 and the Law Faculty in 2012. In 2004 she graduated from the Master Program in Bioethics at Case Western Reserve University, USA. She is a member of the Committee on Bioethics of the Council of Europe and its former Chair and a member of the International Bioethics Committee- UNESCO.
University of Derby United Kingdom
Decomposition is a holistic process where the entire necrobiome needs to be studied1. Taphonomic research is limited by methodological approaches of small sample sizes and tendencies to focus one variable. This study provides an overview of taphonomic descriptors used in body scoring techniques2 as a tool for determining the PMI in pre-depositional freezing and removal/delay of insect access. A Generalised Additives Model was utilised to model the interaction of variables and providing comparative significance on decomposition. If the adjusted R2 value of 0.80+ was achieved, the taphonomic observations and applicability of the TBS system were considered as reasonable. Pre-frozen subjects had a similar rate of decomposition to the expected (control) with a mean TBS of 23.17 and 23.42, respectively. Insect-proof subjects demonstrated a delayed rate of decomposition with a mean TBS of 19.58. The GAM3 model showed that the TBS in insect proof subjects was significantly slower (p=0) from the expected sequence and the pattern of decomposition in pre-frozen subjects was not significantly different (p=0.584). The GAM model showed that the PBS in insect proof subjects was significantly slower in the head (p=0), trunk (p=0), and limbs (p=0) from the expected and the PBS in pre-frozen subjects was not significantly different in the head (p=0.566), trunk (p=0.897), and limbs (p=0.471) from the expected sequence. This implies the overall rate and pattern of decomposition are different in subjects with no/delayed insect access, and the use of visual descriptors to predict a PMI may be ineffective and not applicable to similar conditions.
Sanita Nezirovic working as Lecturer in Forensic Science, Employability Lead for Biomedical and Forensic Science at the University of Derby, and an Early Career Researcher at the School of Human Sciences in Forensic Anthropology and Forensic Taphonomy. Sanita Nezirovic primary specialization is forensic anthropology in mass grave search, recovery and identification, and as an osteoarchaeologist and Site Director for the Archaeological Practice Limited. Broadly, Sanita Nezirovic research concerns the rate and pattern of decomposition in sus scrofa cadavers and testing the feasibility and applicability of body scoring methods to predict a time since death by utilising statistical modelling. Sanita Nezirovic pursue my Forensic Taphonomy research via Master of Research projects, Early Career Researcher grants and Undergraduate Scholarship Schemes. Sanita Nezirovic supervise and direct multiple research projects and internships focused on topics related to Forensic Taphonomy.
City of London Police, United Kingdom
The illegal wildlife trade is among the most lucrative forms of illicit international activities, alongside other serious and organised crimes such as drugs, weapons, and human trafficking, estimated to be worth up to $23 billion per year. The recent COVID19 outbreak has had an obvious global impact and has thrown the threat of zoonotic diseases into sharp focus particularly those animals whose populations are in serious decline through poaching.
The plight of the Pangolin is of paramount importance as the demand for them from Asia is huge. They are desirable for both meat and the perceived medical properties of their scales hence being one of the most trafficked animals in IWT.
Many of the countries where IWT is centred do not have developed forensic science options, so the challenges for retrieving evidence from poaching crime scenes is particularly problematic.
These countries often have a basic fingerprint database but do not utilise crime scene mark searching against the database, so do not employ basic crime scene examination principles.
Forensic Services at the City of London Police has devised a secure method to utilise the UK automated fingerprint recognition technology to search crime scene marks from other countries to identify those believed to be involved in wildlife crime whilst research with KCL continues to identify new technologies required to combat IWT. Together we are providing training to better enable IWT officers to tackle crime at source.
Tracy Alexander is Director of Forensic Services for the City of London Police, President of the British Academy of Forensic Sciences and a Fellow of Kings College London. She has worked in forensic science for 29 years, spending 17 years within the Directorate of Forensic Services at New Scotland Yard as Crime Scene Manager for the Homicide Command and latterly as Head of Forensic Intelligence. As case review specialist at LGC Forensics she headed the cold case investigation unit working on many high profile cases. Tracy is also a visiting senior lecturer at Kings College, London.
University Hassan II, Morocco
The term “torture” means any act by which severe pain or suffering, physical or mental, is intentionally inflicted on a person by a public Agent of judicial authority.
The general purpose of the forensic investigation is to establish the facts in cases of torture allegations. Medicolegal assessment can provide useful evidence in the legal context.
Forensic medical examiner involved in investigations of torture or ill-treatment must meet the highest ethical standards at all times and, in particular, must, before carrying out any examination, obtain informed consent from those concerned. This exam must be compliant to the established rules of medical practice. In particular, it should be done in private under the supervision of the medical expert and without the presence of security guards and other officials. The medical expert prepares a detailed written report without delay.
Here, we will highlight the medicolegal protocol assessment in case of torture allegations to help medical examiner dealing with such sensitive cases.
Dr. Hind ABOUZAHIR graduated from Public Medical University, she finished Forensic Medicine Residency training at the Medico-legal Institute, and became specialist doctor of Forensic Medicine. She was trained on the management of dead bodies and the identification of victims of mass disaster at the African School of Humanitarian Action, and at the Berlin Institute of Forensic Medicine and Forensic Sciences. She is a part of MLDI CoP Monthly Call group training programs, she Participating as keynote speaker at many congresses and conferences. She has published papers in reputed journals. She is Assistant Professor of Forensic Medicine at Casablanca Medical University.
JSS Dental College and Hospital, India
Humanitarian Forensic action is a novel discipline in Forensics which involves the implementation of various fields of Forensic Science to Humanitarian operations. When people die during war, disater or migration, their bodies must be handled with respect and dignity. The dead must be found, recovered and identified. Humanitarian work has come to include the Dignified Management of the Dead. Humanitarian Forensics provides the necessary tools and expertise to manage this. Forensic Medicine , Forensic Anthropology, and Forensic Odontology play a major role in identification, which reunites the dead body to the identity of the person in life, so as to ensure that no one is buried as a John doe or a Jane Doe. An incomplete post-mortem assesment can lead to a delayed or even to a non - identification and would represent a violation to hiuman rights and International Humanitarian Law. In cases where people have been violently and radically dehumanised through disemberment either prior to or after death, Forensic Identification is also a practice of re- humanisation after death. Disasters, conflicts and other unfortunate events cannot be prepared, but response can always be prepared.
Dr. Swathi Kumareswar is serving as the Course Co-ordinator for the MSc. Forensic Odontology program in the Department of Forensic Odontology at JSS Dental College and Hospital, JSS Academy of Higher Education and Research, Mysore (India). Dr. Kumareswar is currently pursuing a Diploma in Human Rights Law from National Law School of India University, Bangalore, India and has completed her masters in Forensic Odontology from Gujarat Forensic Sciences University, now known as the National Forensic Sciences University, Gandinagar, Gujarat, India.
Grigore T. Popa University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Iasi, Romania
Filter paper cards are a simple and reliable way to collect biological samples, which allows their archiving and implicitly their analysis after long periods of time, with the same efficiency. Since its first use more than a century ago- for the determination of glucose in bloodstains, the fields of analysis have expanded greatly: systematic screening for metabolic disorders in newborns, diagnosis of infectious diseases, microbiology, serology, immunology or monitoring medication, using both blood samples and semen or saliva. In the forensic medicine field, these cards for biological samples have proven useful in the field of toxicology- for the analysis of medication, alcohol and prohibited substances, as well as in the field of serology- for DNA extraction and identification of the person. The authors present in this paper the steps in creating the cards for biological samples, emphasizing the advantages and limitations of using these cards in forensic medicine.
Key words: filter paper cards, forensic medicine, toxicology, serology
Bianca Hanganu is a forensic pathologist, specialist physician and assistant professor in Forensic medicine at Grigore T Popa University of Medicine and Pharmacy of Iasi. She attended many international scientific meetings were she presented her work and has published various papers in the field of forensic medicine, bioethics and medical communication, her main areas of interest.
The psychological autopsy can be considered an 'integration to the investigative techniques, forensic and social sciences. The technique is applicable whenever we try to analyze an equivocal death or the disappearance of a person. The technique consists of gathering as much information as possible about the victim's life through structured interviews with people who had a relationship with the missing person. We have also considered the use of interviews with medical personnel and even police involved in first aid.
The purpose is always to perform a retrospective reconstruction of the missing or deceased person's life in order to identify the reasons that caused their disappearance or death. In the case of death of the person, define whether it is suicide, homicide or accidental death. We have applied an innovative restructuring of the MAPI paying attention to the protection of the truthfulness of the information obtained. We have used innovative interviews with the aim of avoiding the alteration of the answers obtained.
Our new protocols have made it possible to identify the real decision-making factors of the victim that led to the occurrence of the event as well as to his death or disappearance.
The psychological autopsy from an investigative point of view originates from the analysis of the crime scene. In the case of a cold case, it may not be possible to find biological or other traces found at the scene of the criminal event, but traces of a different nature, such as psychological traces, may be found. Psychological traces remain present in the places where the victim lived and also in the people who were in contact with the victim.
The purpose of this research is to propose an innovative technique of Psychological Autopsy. In comparison with the classic MAPI our technique is structured on each single case adapting the interview according to the environmental circumstances and to the social-cultural characteristics of the examined subject and, not as last, the kind of gun used in the criminal event. According to us this way of Psychological Autopsy, improving the interviewee confidence and compliance, allows to get information that could escape to a standardized investigation. In one of the cold case that we have studied, this technique of Psychological Autopsy has allowed to get some biological material, coming from the crime scene, that had been secretly hidden from the subject for over 50 years
The aim of our work was also to coordinate the activity of the interviewer, trying to avoid the repetition of interviews that would lead to an alteration of the answers to the questions posed. In a first phase, questions with open-ended answers were preferred. In the subsequent phases we asked questions formulated in a specific way. We have been careful not to formulate questions with previously posed questions. For each case of psychological autopsy, we pointed out that it is important that only one operator handles the interview.
Prof Franco Posa working at NeuroIntelligence, Italy
1 University of Eastern Piedmont, Alessandria, Italy
2 GSC Chemical Advise&Analyses Lab, Olgiate Comasco, Italy
After alcohol, opium is most likely the second substance that humans have been using for the longest time for its psychoactive effects: for example, morphine has the ability to decrease pain sensitivity even at small doses. The prolonged use of these substances with analgesic-narcotic action (of natural and synthetic origin), both for medical and pleasure use, cause addiction/dependence and are thus regulated by specific laws. In Italy, in order to maximize toxicological controls, employees of public administrations or private companies are subjected to constant toxicological analysis. When a worker tests positive for a certain illicit substance, he is momentarily relieved of the assignment, destined for therapeutic paths at drug addiction medical services and, in the extreme, fired. The present work wants to focus the attention on an increasingly growing and widespread problem, concerning the positivity of subjects to opiate substances, especially morphine, not as a result of illicit use/abuse but due to an involuntary intake via food, such as ingesting poppy seeds. For this purpose, basing on a real case, bread with poppy seeds was consumed by 16 healthy subjects of different sexes (seven women and nine men), having different physical characteristics and lifestyles and aged between 25-73 years old, whose urines (before and after intake) were tested with the classic chemical-analytical methods for searching opiates. Poppy seeds, manually shredded, were also subjected to toxicological analysis. The results obtained confirmed that, for most of the subjects, their positivity to morphine was not due to an abuse of the substance itself (or heroin), but from food contamination, and this situation could complicate their job placement or their social life.
Dr. Vincenzo Agostini, Professor of Forensic Biology at the University of Eastern Piedmont “A. Avogadro” (Italy). Graduated summa cum laude in Molecular Biology and Genetics at the University of Pavia and in Forensic Sciences at the University of Milan. Post graduated Master Degree in Forensic Genetics (summa cum laude) at the University of Roma Tor Vergata. Private Technical Adviser as Forensic Biologist for numerous national Public Prosecutors and Law Courts. Member of Ge.F.I. Group – Italian Forensic Genetists Group. Reviewer for Forensic Science International Journal.
National forensic sciences university, India
Disaster Victim Identification is an intensive and demanding task involving specialists from various disciplines. Identification of the deceased is not only a legal necessity but also human right and dignity that society has duty to preserve. The forensic odonatologist is one of the key persons who plays an important role in the DVI human identification process. The role of forensic odonatologist includes criminal investigation using bitemarks, antemortem and postmortem dental records and DNA analysis using saliva. This review will therefore provide an ‘eye of needle’ perspective about the position of forensic odonatologist in Disaster Victim Identification team and their significant role played during such event. It can be concluded that lessons learned from previous disaster incidents have helped to optimize working protocols and to develop new tools that can be applied in future DVI operations. The working procedures have been greatly improved by newly developed technologies.
Dr. Nirali Shah (Dr. Nirali Vishal Patel) completed her postgraduation In forensic odontology from National Forensic Sciences, Gandhinagar, Gujarat, India. She has completed her BDS from K.M.Shah Dental college, Vadodara, Gujarat. She has completed short term courses in fingerprinting, document analysis, handwriting and criminology. she has completed training on scientific management of victim of disasters. Attended and presented poster in 1st international conference Goa, India. She has been working as consultant forensic odonatologist and working on project under awareness of forensic odontology in police personnel in Gujarat, India.
National Forensic Sciences University, INDIA
Basic Luminescent nanomaterials are an important class of material with potential application in sensing, imaging, photocatalysis, electronics, display application etc. Here we have demonstrated the application of different fluorescent nanomaterials for forensic investigative research with major focus on development of latent fingerprint and explosive sensing. Thus, in our first work, different amphiphilic silica nanoparticles were synthesized and meticulously characterized for their application in development of latent fingerprints. We could find that long alkyl chain (−C11H23 and −C17H35) based amphiphilic silica nanoparticles showed good performance for development of latent fingerprints. To produce a luminescent silica nanopowder with similar surface character, a Pt(II)C^N^N−C12H25 luminophore with long hydrophobic aliphatic chain (−C12H25) was introduced to the silica surface. This electron rich luminescent hybrid nanopowder can detect trinitrotoluene (TNT) through photoinduced electron transfer (PET) process. We successfully demonstrated that this Pt(II)-complex functionalized luminescent silica nanopowder could be useful for dual purpose; for the development of latent fingerprint along with simultaneous identification of explosive traces if present in the print. (Scheme 1) In second work, an organometallic ruthenium nanocluster with ∼8.6 kDa mol. Wt. was synthesized, where aromatic phenanthrene ligands were intermolecularly conjugated through Ru core. The Ru nanocluster showed excellent sensing performance for detection of nitroaromatic explosive molecules through luminescence quenching strategy. (Scheme 2)
Sagar Bhowmik is presently serving as the Nodal Officer (East & North-Eastern region) of National Forensic Sciences University, MHA, Government of India. He has completed his MS in forensic nanotechnology and postgraduate diploma in fingerprint sciences. Currently he is pursuing his PhD in forensic science from NFSU. He specialized in the area of development of nano-sensor for forensic investigations, advance fingerprint development techniques and preventive forensics. He involved in forensic trainings for several international police officers from various countries and serving different state governments for FSLs modernization. He got grants like Innovation Grant, SHODH fellowship by Govt. of Gujarat, CSIR Grant by GoI. He was awarded best scientific speaker by Tripura Chemical Society. He has published several research papers in reputed International journals and presented his work as a speaker in several International conferences in India and abroad. His research work is awarded by several organizations like DRDO, IIT- Gandhinagar, and Asian Network for Natural and Unnatural Materials.
Forensic Death Investigator, United States
The State Route 530 Mudslide of 2014 (or the Oso Mudslide) took place on March 22, 2014 when a portion of the foothills of the Cascade Mountains collapsed in the town of Oso, Washington. This had been the sixth slide in the area in the last hundred years, and not only was it the most devastating but took the lives of 43 people. This event was, and still is, the largest number of human fatalities in a mudslide in the United States.
Preparedness only goes so far when dealing with a mass disaster. This case study will provide information for preparedness and the need to be flexible in a disaster plan – what went wrong, what went right, and everything in between.
Julie Wolf has dual bachelor’s degrees in Forensic Science and Chemistry. She has held positions as a Medicolegal Death Investigator for the District of Columbia, Snohomish County (Washington State) and the State of Connecticut, as well as an Identification Investigator with the New York City Office of Chief Medical Examiner. She is also a medical investigator for the United States Department of Health and Human Services Disaster Mortuary Operations Response Team (Region III).
National Forensic Sciences University, India
Identification is one of the core areas a forensic odontologist has to deal with. INTERPOL identifies dermatoglyphics, dental parameters and DNA as primary identifiers. Teeth remains are found intact even when the body is decomposed or incinerated to some extent. Thus teeth is one of the most important scientific evidence. Disaster is a very unpleasant, sudden experience which involves multiple bodies, chaotic surroundings. Most of the bodies are either left decapitated, decomposed which makes visual identification difficult. It becomes very important for a forensic odontologist to render their best services to help identify the bodies. A dental identification is possible only with the proper comparision of ante mortem and post mortem data. The countries with dental databases usually serves the best for dental identifications. Teeth can endure a lot of taphonomic changes and maintain its integrity, inspite of being exposed to high temperatures or effects of chemicals. In this particular session, we will discuss about the classification of disasters, deeper insights into the role of a forensic odontologist in identification and an essence of humanitarian forensics
Dr. Pooja Chakraborty is a Forensic Odontologist by profession. She completed her bachelors of dental surgery in 2018 with outstanding marks and went on to pursue her masters in Forensic Odontology thereafter. To her credit she has numerous International and national Paper and Poster Presentations and also bagged few awards for the same. She has contributed articles in both national and international journals and has even co-authored a chapter on ‘Recent advances in Forensic Odontology’. She is trained in performing dental autopsies and DNA Forensics. She has keen interest for forensic archaeology and forensic facial reconstructions. She is actively involved in the field of forensics and has addressed various talks for the graduates, post graduates as well as security professionals. She has been invited as speaker on various paltforms. She is involved with Internatioanl agencies dealing with DVI Operations.
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